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1. Moncrieff J, Cohen D, Porter S: The psychoactive effects of psychiatric medication: the elephant in the room. J Psychoactive Drugs; 2013 Nov-Dec;45(5):409-15
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  • We discuss how psychoactive effects produced by different drugs prescribed in psychiatric practice might modify various disturbing and distressing symptoms, and we also consider the costs of these psychoactive effects on the mental well-being of the user.
  • We consider how the reality of psychoactive effects undermines the idea that psychiatric drugs work by targeting underlying disease processes, since psychoactive effects can themselves directly modify mental and behavioral symptoms and thus affect the results of placebo-controlled trials.
  • Extensive research is needed to clarify the range of acute and longer-term mental, behavioral, and physical effects induced by psychiatric drugs, both during and after consumption and withdrawal, to enable users and prescribers to exploit their psychoactive effects judiciously in a safe and more informed manner.

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  • (PMID = 24592667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0279-1072
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of psychoactive drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Psychoactive Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Psychotropic Drugs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4118946
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2. Gu Z, Liu W, Wei J, Yan Z: Regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors by metabotropic glutamate receptor 7. J Biol Chem; 2012 Mar 23;287(13):10265-75
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  • These data suggest that mGluR7, by affecting the cofilin/actin signaling, regulates NMDAR trafficking and function.
  • Because ablation of mGluR7 leads to a variety of behavioral symptoms related to PFC dysfunction, such as impaired working memory and reduced anxiety and depression, our results provide a potential mechanism for understanding the role of mGluR7 in mental health and disorders.

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  • (PMID = 22287544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH084233; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH085774; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH84233; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH85774
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actin Depolymerizing Factors; 0 / Actins; 0 / Dlgh4 protein, rat; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 0 / metabotropic glutamate receptor 7; EC 2.7.4.8 / Dlgh4 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.4.8 / Guanylate Kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3322988
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3. Chaturvedi SK, Hamza A, Sharma MP: Changes in distressing behavior perceived by family of persons with schizophrenia at home - 25 years later. Indian J Psychol Med; 2014 Jul;36(3):282-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia disorders as well as their symptoms cause distress to the family members or caregivers, which may cause poor quality of life.
  • AIMS: To determine if there was any change in the perception of distressful symptoms of schizophrenia, by the family members, now, 25 years after the initial studies in the same centre.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six consecutive and consenting new cases diagnosed as schizophrenia were administered the Scale for Assessment of Family Distress to identify the amount of distress caused by each of the symptoms reported.
  • RESULTS: Symptoms like does not do work and earn, does not sleep, and does not do household tasks were reported as the commonest distressing symptoms in both the samples, however, in the 1988 sample, negative symptoms like, slow in doing things, social withdrawal and has few leisure interests, were the commonest, in the present sample behavioral symptoms like beats and assaults others, threatens, is abusive and talks nonsense were the commonest distressing symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 25035552.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-7176
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of psychological medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Psychol Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4100414
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Expressed emotions / QOL / family distress / mental illness / schizophrenia
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4. Stellman JM, Smith RP, Katz CL, Sharma V, Charney DS, Herbert R, Moline J, Luft BJ, Markowitz S, Udasin I, Harrison D, Baron S, Landrigan PJ, Levin SM, Southwick S: Enduring mental health morbidity and social function impairment in world trade center rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers: the psychological dimension of an environmental health disaster. Environ Health Perspect; 2008 Sep;116(9):1248-53
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  • [Title] Enduring mental health morbidity and social function impairment in world trade center rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers: the psychological dimension of an environmental health disaster.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our objective in this study was to describe mental health outcomes, social function impairment, and psychiatric comorbidity in the WTC worker cohort, as well as perceived symptomatology in workers' children.
  • Point prevalence declined from 13.5% to 9.7% over the 5 years of observation.
  • Comorbidity was extensive and included extremely high risks for impairment of social function.
  • PTSD was significantly associated with loss of family members and friends, disruption of family, work, and social life, and higher rates of behavioral symptoms in children of workers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Working in 9/11 recovery operations is associated with chronic impairment of mental health and social functioning.

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  • (PMID = 18795171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-6765
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIOSH CDC HHS / OH / U10 OH008232; United States / NIOSH CDC HHS / OH / U10 OH008239; United States / NIOSH CDC HHS / OH / U10 OH008275; United States / NIOSH CDC HHS / OH / U10 OH008223; United States / NIOSH CDC HHS / OH / U10 OH008216; United States / PHS HHS / / 200-2002-00384; United States / PHS HHS / / U10 UOH008239; United States / NIOSH CDC HHS / OH / U10 OH008225
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2535630
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; World Trade Center / depression / disaster workers / functional impairment / occupational health / post-traumatic stress disorder / stress
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5. Posada C, Moore DJ, Woods SP, Vigil O, Ake C, Perry W, Hassanein TI, Letendre SL, Grant I, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Group: Implications of hepatitis C virus infection for behavioral symptoms and activities of daily living. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol; 2010 Jul;32(6):637-44
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  • [Title] Implications of hepatitis C virus infection for behavioral symptoms and activities of daily living.
  • Despite these previous findings, little work has been done to examine neurobehavioral symptoms associated with HCV infection.
  • Results showed that at the group level, only the FrSBe apathy subscale mean was clinically elevated (T score >65) among HCV+ persons; executive dysfunction, disinhibition, and total subscale means were not clinically elevated.
  • These results show that a subset of HCV-infected individuals report clinically elevated behavioral symptoms.
  • Clinical implications for the assessment and management of elevated behavioral symptoms in HCV are discussed.

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  • (PMID = 20603743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-411X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Exp Neuropsychol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH 62512-07; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / P01DA12065-08; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA012065-08; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / P30 MH062512; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / P01 DA012065; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / P01 DA012065-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS203317; NLM/ PMC2898888
  • [Investigator] Grant I; Atkinson JH; Ellis RJ; McCutchan JA; Marcotte TD; Sherman M; Hale BR; Ellis RJ; McCutchan JA; Letendre S; Capparelli E; Schrier R; Marquie-Beck J; Alexander T; Heaton RK; Cherner M; Woods SP; Moore DJ; Dawson M; Jernigan T; Fennema-Notestine C; Archibald SL; Hesselink J; Annese J; Taylor MJ; Schweinsburg B; Masliah E; Everall I; Achim C; Richman D; McCutchan JA; Everall I; Lipton S; McCutchan JA; Atkinson JH; Ellis RJ; Letendre S; Atkinson JH; von Jaeger R; Gamst AC; Cushman C; Masys DR; Abramson I; Vaida F; Ake C
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6. Edvardsson D, Sandman PO, Nay R, Karlsson S: Associations between the working characteristics of nursing staff and the prevalence of behavioral symptoms in people with dementia in residential care. Int Psychogeriatr; 2008 Aug;20(4):764-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Associations between the working characteristics of nursing staff and the prevalence of behavioral symptoms in people with dementia in residential care.
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests that the work characteristics of staff in residential care may influence the well-being of residents with dementia.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate associations between work characteristics of nursing staff and prevalence of behavioral symptoms among people with dementia in residential care settings.
  • METHODS: The self-report job strain assessment scale was used to measure staff perceptions of their working environment, and the Multi Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale to measure the occurrence of behavioral symptoms among residents in 40 residential care units for people with dementia.
  • RESULTS: The findings show that in settings where staff reported high job strain, the prevalence of behavioral symptoms was significantly higher compared to settings where staff reported low job strain.
  • There was no statistically significant association between staff members' self-reported knowledge in caring for people with dementia and prevalence of behavioral symptoms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nurse-Patient Relations. Personality Inventory. Risk Factors. Statistics as Topic. Sweden

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  • (PMID = 18304386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1041-6102
  • [Journal-full-title] International psychogeriatrics / IPA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Psychogeriatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Moghul S, Wilkinson D: Use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease. Expert Rev Neurother; 2001 Sep;1(1):61-9
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  • Until recently, the management of Alzheimer's disease largely comprised support for the family, nursing care and the use of unlicensed medication to control behavioral disturbances.
  • More recent work on the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on behavioral symptoms, activities of daily living and caregiver burden have also been encouraging.
  • Emerging work indicates their likely efficacy in other dementias (e.g., vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies).

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  • (PMID = 19811047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Skogan AH, Zeiner P, Egeland J, Rohrer-Baumgartner N, Urnes AG, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Aase H: Inhibition and working memory in young preschool children with symptoms of ADHD and/or oppositional-defiant disorder. Child Neuropsychol; 2014;20(5):607-24
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  • [Title] Inhibition and working memory in young preschool children with symptoms of ADHD and/or oppositional-defiant disorder.
  • BACKGROUND: Early symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) are associated with deficits in cognitive self-regulatory processes or executive functions (EF)s.
  • The present study investigated associations between symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD and two core EFs, inhibition and working memory, in a large nonclinical sample of 3-year old children.
  • Relations between behavioral symptoms and measures of inhibition and working memory were studied both categorically and dimensionally.
  • RESULTS: Children with co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and ODD performed at a significantly lower level than typically developing children in 4 out of 5 EF measures.
  • Symptoms of ADHD, both alone and in combination with ODD, were associated with reduced performance on tests of inhibition in the group comparisons.
  • The associations between test results and behavioral symptoms remained significant after gender and verbal skills had been controlled.
  • CONCLUSION: Young preschoolers show the same pattern of relations between EF and behavioral symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD as previously described in older children diagnosed with ADHD and/or ODD.
  • [MeSH-major] Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / psychology. Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders / psychology. Executive Function. Inhibition (Psychology). Memory, Short-Term

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  • (PMID = 24053105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-4136
  • [Journal-full-title] Child neuropsychology : a journal on normal and abnormal development in childhood and adolescence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Child Neuropsychol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1 UO1 NS047537-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 2 UO1 NS047537-06A1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / N0-ES75558
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; ADHD / Development / Executive functions / ODD / Preschool children
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9. Halbreich U, Freeman EW, Rapkin AJ, Cohen LS, Grubb GS, Bergeron R, Smith L, Mirkin S, Constantine GD: Continuous oral levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol for treating premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Contraception; 2012 Jan;85(1):19-27
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  • Other primary end points were not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Continuous daily LNG 90 mcg/EE 20 mcg was well tolerated and may be useful for managing the physical, psychological and behavioral symptoms and loss of work productivity related to PMDD.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22067793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0518
  • [Journal-full-title] Contraception
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Contraception
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00128934
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Female; 0 / Estrogens; 423D2T571U / Ethinyl Estradiol; 5W7SIA7YZW / Levonorgestrel
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10. Weil ZM, Bowers SL, Dow ER, Nelson RJ: Maternal aggression persists following lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the immune system. Physiol Behav; 2006 Apr 15;87(4):694-9
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  • Previous work has suggested that animals can suppress the behavioral symptoms of sickness in order to engage in adaptive behaviors.
  • Further, LPS treatment also altered non-agonistic behavior during the aggression test as indicated by reduced social investigation of the intruder and an increased time spent immobile during the session.
  • These findings suggest that maternal aggression is not suppressed by LPS-evoked immune activation at doses that attenuate other aspects of maternal and social behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Aggression / physiology. Lactation / immunology. Maternal Behavior / physiology. Reaction Time / immunology. Sick Role

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  • (PMID = 16490223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-9384
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiology & behavior
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Behav.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH 57535; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH 66144; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS 045758
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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11. Simard M, van Reekum R, Cohen T: A review of the cognitive and behavioral symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci; 2000;12(4):425-50
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  • [Title] A review of the cognitive and behavioral symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies.
  • To clarify the future research agenda in this area, the authors critically appraise the literature on cognitive and behavioral changes in DLB and provide a brief overview of the history of DLB, the main pathological changes, and the findings related to extrapyramidal symptoms and treatment issues.
  • Twenty-one studies on cognition and 47 on behavioral changes in DLB are reviewed.
  • Impairments of working memory and visuospatial functions, visual hallucinations, and depression (or symptoms of depression such as apathy and anxiety) have been identified as early indicators of DLB.
  • However, longitudinal and cross-sectional data are lacking, particularly for different aspects of working memory, visual perception, and non-psychotic behavioral symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 11083160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0895-0172
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 168
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12. Brown TE, Brams M, Gao J, Gasior M, Childress A: Open-label administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate improves executive function impairments and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. Postgrad Med; 2010 Sep;122(5):7-17
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  • [Title] Open-label administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate improves executive function impairments and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.
  • INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE: Executive function (EF) impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may account for behavioral symptoms such as poor concentration, impaired working memory, problems in shifting among tasks, and prioritizing and planning complex sets of tasks or completing long-term projects at work or school.
  • METHODS: Executive function behavior was assessed using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) during the 4-week open-label dose-optimization phase prior to a 2-period, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of LDX (30-70 mg/day).
  • The ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult prompts assessed ADHD symptoms.
  • Change in EF behavioral symptoms was evaluated based on week 4 BADDS total and cluster scores; analyses of shifts from baseline among subjects with BADDS scores < 50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and ≥ 70; and scores less than or greater than baseline 90% confidence range (eg, reliably improved or worsened, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Stimulants / administration & dosage. Dextroamphetamine / administration & dosage. Executive Function

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  • (PMID = 20861583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00697515
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; SJT761GEGS / Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate; TZ47U051FI / Dextroamphetamine
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13. Nag N, Ward B, Berger-Sweeney JE: Nutritional factors in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev; 2009 Apr;33(4):586-92
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  • Environmental factors such as nutrition and housing can influence behavioral and anatomical characteristics of several neurological disorders, including Rett syndrome (RTT).
  • While direct genetic intervention in humans is impossible at this time, motor and cognitive deficits in RTT may be ameliorated through manipulations of epigenetic/environmental factors.
  • Recent work in a mouse model of RTT shows that enhancing maternal nutrition through choline supplementation improves both anatomical and behavioral symptoms in the mutant offspring.

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  • (PMID = 18479749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-7634
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci Biobehav Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2; N91BDP6H0X / Choline; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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14. Herring A, Blome M, Ambrée O, Sachser N, Paulus W, Keyvani K: Reduction of cerebral oxidative stress following environmental enrichment in mice with Alzheimer-like pathology. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jan;20(1):166-75
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  • Additionally, recent work in our lab demonstrated that cognitive and physical stimulation (termed environmental enrichment) counteracts amyloid beta pathology, neurovascular dysfunction and behavioral symptoms in mice with Alzheimer-like disease.

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  • (PMID = 19134003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid beta-Peptides; 0 / Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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15. Barry M, Reschly AL: Longitudinal predictors of high school completion. Sch Psychol Q; 2012 Jun;27(2):74-84
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  • Model A, which included the Behavioral Symptoms Index, School Problems composite, Iowa Tests of Basic Skills battery, and teacher ratings of student work habits, best predicted female and African American dropouts.

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  • [Copyright] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
  • (PMID = 22774782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-1560
  • [Journal-full-title] School psychology quarterly : the official journal of the Division of School Psychology, American Psychological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sch Psychol Q
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Delfino JP, Barragán E, Botella C, Braun S, Bridler R, Camussi E, Chafrat V, Lott P, Mohr C, Moragrega I, Papagno C, Sanchez S, Seifritz E, Soler C, Stassen HH: Quantifying insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress: a cross-cultural study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina. Psychopathology; 2015;48(4):230-9
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  • In fact, chronic stress increasingly dominates modern work conditions and can affect nearly every system of the human body, as suggested by physical, cognitive, affective and behavioral symptoms.
  • The data analysis relied on 2 self-report questionnaires: the Coping Strategies Inventory (COPE) for the assessment of coping behavior and the Zurich Health Questionnaire which assesses consumption behavior and general health dimensions.

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  • [Copyright] © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 25967599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-033X
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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17. Kim TW, Kang HS, Park JK, Lee SJ, Baek SB, Kim CJ: Voluntary wheel running ameliorates symptoms of MK-801-induced schizophrenia in mice. Mol Med Rep; 2014 Dec;10(6):2924-30
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  • [Title] Voluntary wheel running ameliorates symptoms of MK-801-induced schizophrenia in mice.
  • In the present study, we investigated in vivo the effects of voluntary wheel running on behavioral symptoms associated with NMDA receptor expression, using MK‑801‑induced schizophrenic mice.
  • For the assessment of behavioral symptoms affecting locomotion, social interaction and spatial working memory, the open‑field, social interaction and Morris water maze tests were conducted.
  • MK‑801 injection for 14 days induced schizophrenia‑like behavioral abnormalities with decreased expression of the NMDA receptor and BDNF in the brains of mice.
  • The results indicated that free access to voluntary wheel running for 2 weeks alleviated schizophrenia‑like behavioral abnormalities and increased the expression of NMDA receptor and BDNF, comparable to the effects of aripiprazole treatment.
  • In the present study, the results suggest that NMDA receptor hypofunctioning induced schizophrenia‑like behaviors, and that voluntary wheel running was effective in reducing these symptoms by increasing NMDA receptor and BDNF expression, resulting in an improvement of disease related behavioral deficits.

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  • (PMID = 25323073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-3004
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 6LR8C1B66Q / Dizocilpine Maleate
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18. Cunningham J, Williams KN: A case study of resistiveness to care and elderspeak. Res Theory Nurs Pract; 2007;21(1):45-56
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  • This case study evaluated behavioral responses of a nursing home resident with dementia to nursing staff use of elderspeak communication (infantilizing speech).
  • Limitations include the use of a convenient case study sample with inability to control time of day, medications, different care activities, staff characteristics, and other factors.
  • Knowledge about communication in dementia care may inform nursing care practices to overcome behavioral symptoms such as RTC and improve quality of life for individuals with dementia and working conditions for nursing staff.
  • [MeSH-major] Attitude of Health Personnel. Communication. Dementia. Nurse-Patient Relations. Nursing Staff / psychology. Treatment Refusal / psychology

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  • (PMID = 17378464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-6577
  • [Journal-full-title] Research and theory for nursing practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res Theory Nurs Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Wuthrich VM, Johnco CJ, Wetherell JL: Differences in anxiety and depression symptoms: comparison between older and younger clinical samples. Int Psychogeriatr; 2015 Sep;27(9):1523-32
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  • [Title] Differences in anxiety and depression symptoms: comparison between older and younger clinical samples.
  • BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression symptoms change over the lifespan and older adults use different terms to describe their mental health, contributing to under identification of anxiety and depression in older adults.
  • To date, research has not examined these differences in younger and older samples with comorbid anxiety and depression.
  • Older adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) reported less worry about interpersonal relationships and work/school than younger adults, however, there were no differences between age groups for behavioral symptoms endorsed.
  • Finally, older and younger adults differed in their descriptions of symptoms with older adults describing anxiety as feeling stressed and tense, while younger adults described anxiety as feeling anxious, worried or nervous.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians need to assess symptoms broadly to avoid missing the presence of anxiety and mood disorders especially in older adults.


20. Farrace D, Tommasi M, Casadio C, Verrotti A: Parenting stress evaluation and behavioral syndromes in a group of pediatric patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav; 2013 Oct;29(1):222-7
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  • [Title] Parenting stress evaluation and behavioral syndromes in a group of pediatric patients with epilepsy.
  • The aim of the present work was to measure the amount of stress in parents of children with epilepsy and to determine whether and how parenting stress is linked to behavioral symptoms of the children.
  • Parenting stress was measured with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and behavioral symptoms with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
  • Epilepsy caused a high level of parenting stress and of problematic behaviors since the behavioral symptoms predicting the degree of parenting stress significantly differed between healthy children and children with epilepsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Behavioral Symptoms / etiology. Epilepsy / complications. Parent-Child Relations. Parenting / psychology. Stress, Psychological / etiology

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  • [Copyright] © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 24034672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-5069
  • [Journal-full-title] Epilepsy & behavior : E&B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epilepsy Behav
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Behavioral syndrome / Epilepsy / Parenting stress / Pediatric patients
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21. Amore M: Partial androgen deficiency and neuropsychiatric symptoms in aging men. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl Proceedings):49-54
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  • [Title] Partial androgen deficiency and neuropsychiatric symptoms in aging men.
  • The partial androgen deficiency of aging males (PADAM) is responsible for a variety of behavioral symptoms, such as weakness, fatigue, decreased libido, depressive mood, lack of motivation and energy, lower psychological vitality, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, decreased work and sport performances, difficulty in concentrating, memory impairment and low dominance.
  • Psychological and behavioral aspects of PADAM overlap with signs and symptoms of major depression.
  • The etiology of the behavioral symptoms of PADAM is multifactorial, being the result of the interaction of biological and social changes, and of the personal ability to adapt to the numerous individual and social changes that take place during mid-life transition.

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  • (PMID = 16760626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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22. Gilman JT, Tuchman RF: Autism and associated behavioral disorders: pharmacotherapeutic intervention. Ann Pharmacother; 1995 Jan;29(1):47-56
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  • [Title] Autism and associated behavioral disorders: pharmacotherapeutic intervention.
  • DATA SYNTHESIS: Autism and PDDs are severe developmental disabilities defined by behavioral criteria.
  • Behavioral manifestations of patients with autism include core deficits in social interaction, communication, and imaginative activities, with a restricted repertoire of activities and interests.
  • The role of pharmacotherapy in the management of autism and PDDs is to ameliorate behavioral symptoms that interfere with the patient's ability to participate in educational, social, work, and family systems.
  • Present pharmacotherapeutic intervention seeks to resolve behavioral symptoms.
  • Treatment of autism and PDDs requires appropriate delineation of the behaviors and neurobiologic disorders associated with each patient.

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  • (PMID = 7711345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-0280
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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23. Santos-Santos MA, Mandelli ML, Binney RJ, Ogar J, Wilson SM, Henry ML, Hubbard HI, Meese M, Attygalle S, Rosenberg L, Pakvasa M, Trojanowski JQ, Grinberg LT, Rosen H, Boxer AL, Miller BL, Seeley WW, Gorno-Tempini ML: Features of Patients With Nonfluent/Agrammatic Primary Progressive Aphasia With Underlying Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Pathology or Corticobasal Degeneration. JAMA Neurol; 2016 Jun 1;73(6):733-42
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  • RESULTS: Patient groups did not differ significantly in age, sex, or handedness (nfvPPA-PSP group: median [interquartile range (IQR)] age, 74 [67-76] years; 1 of 5 male [20%]; 1 of 5 left-handed [20%]; and nfvPPA-CBD group: mean [IQR] age, 65 [54-81] years; 3 of 9 male [33%]; 0 left-handed).
  • Furthermore, atrophy in patients with PSP progressed within the subcortical/brainstem motor system generating greater oculomotors deficits and swallowing difficulty; atrophy in patients with CBD spread anteriorly in prefrontal regions consistent with their greater working memory impairment and development of behavioral symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 27111692.001).
  • [ISSN] 2168-6157
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG019724; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P50 AG023501; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG032306; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG038791; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS050915
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS786397 [Available on 06/01/17]; NLM/ PMC4924620 [Available on 06/01/17]
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24. Baiamonte BA, Lee FA, Brewer ST, Spano D, LaHoste GJ: Attenuation of Rhes activity significantly delays the appearance of behavioral symptoms in a mouse model of Huntington's disease. PLoS One; 2013;8(1):e53606
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  • [Title] Attenuation of Rhes activity significantly delays the appearance of behavioral symptoms in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.
  • Recent in vitro work suggests that Rhes may be a co-factor with mutant huntingtin in cell death.
  • The objective of the present study was to examine whether the inhibition of Rhes would attenuate or delay the symptoms of HD in vivo.
  • We used a transgenic mouse model of HD crossed with Rhes knockout mice to show that the behavioral symptoms of HD are regulated by Rhes.
  • HD(+)/Rhes(-/-) mice showed significantly delayed expression of HD-like symptoms in this in vivo model.

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  • (PMID = 23349722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HTT protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / Rasd2 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3549908
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25. Louis ED: Behavioral symptoms associated with essential tremor. Adv Neurol; 2005;96:284-90
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  • [Title] Behavioral symptoms associated with essential tremor.
  • Further work is needed to define the extent of the nonmotor manifestations, their presence or absence in the predisease state, and their progression over time.
  • [MeSH-major] Behavioral Symptoms / etiology. Essential Tremor / complications

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  • (PMID = 16383227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS39422; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS42859
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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26. Castner SA, Arriza JL, Roberts JC, Mrzljak L, Christian EP, Williams GV: Reversal of ketamine-induced working memory impairments by the GABAAalpha2/3 agonist TPA023. Biol Psychiatry; 2010 May 15;67(10):998-1001
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  • [Title] Reversal of ketamine-induced working memory impairments by the GABAAalpha2/3 agonist TPA023.
  • BACKGROUND: Ketamine has been used to model cognitive and behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia.
  • Current hypotheses state that inadequate glutamatergic transmission in schizophrenia leads to a deficiency in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory mechanisms and treatment with a GABA type A receptor subunits alpha2/alpha3 (GABA(Aalpha2/3)) modulator improved working memory performance in a preliminary study in patients.
  • Here, we used ketamine to impair spatial working memory and disrupt behavior to examine the capacity for the GABA(Aalpha2/3) agonist 7-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (TPA023) to reverse these symptoms.
  • Behavioral observations were acquired at approximately 5 minutes, and spatial delayed response performance was tested at 15 minutes postinjection.
  • RESULTS: Ketamine produced a profound impairment in spatial working memory in association with the emergence of hallucinatory-like behaviors.
  • TPA023 at all doses blocked ketamine's cognitive-impairing ability but did not influence the behavioral symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Acute GABA(Aalpha2/3) agonist administration reverses the working memory deficits induced by ketamine in primates.
  • This finding indicates that the consequences of N-methyl-D-aspartate deficiency on the function of prefrontal circuits involved in working memory can be completely overcome by acute enhancement of GABA signaling.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20189164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2402
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH 65552
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 7-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo(4,3-b)pyridazine; 0 / GABA-A Receptor Agonists; 0 / Pyridazines; 0 / Triazoles; 690G0D6V8H / Ketamine
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27. Andreescu C, Teverovsky E, Fu B, Hughes TF, Chang CC, Ganguli M: Old worries and new anxieties: behavioral symptoms and mild cognitive impairment in a population study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry; 2014 Mar;22(3):274-84
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  • [Title] Old worries and new anxieties: behavioral symptoms and mild cognitive impairment in a population study.
  • We examined subgroups of anxiety symptoms and depression symptom profiles in relation to MCI, which we defined using both cognitive and functional approaches.
  • 1) a purely cognitive classification into amnestic and nonamnestic MCI, 2) a combined cognitive-functional definition by International Working Group (IWG) criteria, and 3) a purely functional definition by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 23759435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-7214
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / K07 AG044395; United States / PHS HHS / / K23 086686; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K23 MH086686; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / K24 AG022035; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / K24AG022035; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024154; United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / KL2 TR000146; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / P30 MH052247; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / P30 MH071944; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG023651; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH076079; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01AG023651; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / T32 MH019986; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / T32 MH019986; United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000005
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS464924; NLM/ PMC3783616
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mild cognitive impairment / anxiety / depression / neuropsychiatric symptoms
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28. Mills KL, Bathula D, Dias TG, Iyer SP, Fenesy MC, Musser ED, Stevens CA, Thurlow BL, Carpenter SD, Nagel BJ, Nigg JT, Fair DA: Altered cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity in relation to spatial working memory capacity in children with ADHD. Front Psychiatry; 2012;3:2
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  • [Title] Altered cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity in relation to spatial working memory capacity in children with ADHD.
  • INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) captures a heterogeneous group of children, who are characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms.
  • Spatial working memory has been proposed as a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of ADHD.
  • METHODS: We correlated the rs-fcMRI of five thalamic regions of interest (ROIs) with spatial span working memory scores in a sample of 67 children aged 7-11 years [ADHD and typically developing children (TDC)].
  • To identify the thalamic connections that relate to spatial working memory in ADHD, only connections identified in both the correlational and comparative analyses were considered.
  • Multiple connections between the thalamus and basal ganglia, particularly between medial and anterior dorsal thalamus and the putamen, were related to spatial working memory and also altered in ADHD.

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  • (PMID = 22291667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1664-0640
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Psychiatry
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K99 MH091238; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R00 MH091238; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH059105; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH086654
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3265767
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; ADHD / connectivity / fMRI / striatum / thalamus / working memory
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29. Brocki KC, Nyberg L, Thorell LB, Bohlin G: Early concurrent and longitudinal symptoms of ADHD and ODD: relations to different types of inhibitory control and working memory. J Child Psychol Psychiatry; 2007 Oct;48(10):1033-41
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  • [Title] Early concurrent and longitudinal symptoms of ADHD and ODD: relations to different types of inhibitory control and working memory.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate how three different types of inhibitory control - interference control within task, interference control outside task, and prepotent response inhibition - and two types of working memory - verbal and spatial - would relate to early symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), both concurrently and longitudinally.
  • METHODS: Seventy-two preschoolers, 1/3 who had been identified as being at risk for developing ADHD and/or ODD, completed neuropsychological tasks designed to measure inhibitory control and working memory.
  • Behavioral symptoms were measured through parental and teacher ratings of the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and ODD.
  • RESULTS: Our results suggest distinct types of inhibitory control as being good predictors of concurrent and longitudinal symptoms of ADHD, rather than ODD.
  • However, no associations were obtained between working memory and ADHD or ODD symptoms either concurrently or longitudinally.

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  • (PMID = 17915004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Child Psychol Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Szymanski L, King BH: Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with mental retardation and comorbid mental disorders. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Working Group on Quality Issues. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry; 1999 Dec;38(12 Suppl):5S-31S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with mental retardation and comorbid mental disorders. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Working Group on Quality Issues.
  • With an approach underscored by principles of normalization and the availability of appropriate education and habilitation, persons with MR generally live, are educated, and work in the community.
  • Clinical presentations can be modified by poor language skills and by life circumstances, so a diagnosis might hinge more heavily on observable behavioral symptoms.


31. Ziermans T, Dumontheil I, Roggeman C, Peyrard-Janvid M, Matsson H, Kere J, Klingberg T: Working memory brain activity and capacity link MAOA polymorphism to aggressive behavior during development. Transl Psychiatry; 2012;2:e85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Working memory brain activity and capacity link MAOA polymorphism to aggressive behavior during development.
  • A developmental increase in working memory capacity is an important part of cognitive development, and low working memory (WM) capacity is a risk factor for developing psychopathology.
  • Behavioral problems were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
  • Increased activity in this network, but not in caudate nucleus or anterior prefrontal regions, was correlated with VSWM capacity, which in turn predicted externalizing (aggressive/oppositional) symptoms, with higher WM capacity associated with fewer externalizing symptoms.
  • There were no direct significant correlations between rs6609257 and behavioral symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 22832821.001).
  • [ISSN] 2158-3188
  • [Journal-full-title] Translational psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transl Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DRD5 protein, human; 0 / Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / SLC6A3 protein, human; 137750-34-6 / Receptors, Dopamine D4; 137750-35-7 / Receptors, Dopamine D5; EC 1.14.17.1 / Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase; EC 1.4.3.4 / Monoamine Oxidase; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3309555
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32. Ziermans TB: Working memory capacity and psychotic-like experiences in a general population sample of adolescents and young adults. Front Psychiatry; 2013;4:161
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  • [Title] Working memory capacity and psychotic-like experiences in a general population sample of adolescents and young adults.
  • Working memory (WM) impairment is a common feature in individuals with schizophrenia and high-risk for psychosis and a promising target for early intervention strategies.
  • However, it is unclear to what extent WM impairment parallels specific behavioral symptoms along the psychosis continuum.
  • PLE scores were derived from a translated symptom questionnaire (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences), which includes positive, negative, and depressive symptom scales.
  • The results showed that low WM capacity was modestly associated with increased reports of bizarre experiences (BE) and depressive symptoms, after controlling for age, gender, and global symptom scores.
  • Interestingly, when analyses were repeated for separate age groups, low WM was exclusively associated with a higher frequency of BE for young adults (20-27 years) and with depressive symptoms for older adults (28-35 years).

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  • (PMID = 24348432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1664-0640
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3847810
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CAPE / PLEs / adolescence / internet / psychosis proneness / schizotypy / working memory
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33. Machulda MM, Haut MW: Clinical features of chronic subdural hematoma: neuropsychiatric and neuropsychologic changes in patients with chronic subdural hematoma. Neurosurg Clin N Am; 2000 Jul;11(3):473-7
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  • This article provides a background review of the cognitive and behavioral symptoms associated with chronic subdural hematoma (CSH).
  • The areas addressed include the initial cognitive and behavioral symptom presentation, lateralization and localizing signs, differences between older and younger patients, and differential diagnosis.
  • Although it is clear that behavioral and cognitive abnormalities are seen in CSH, further work is needed to objectively clarify the range of symptoms and signs.

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  • (PMID = 10918017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-3680
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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34. Gomarus HK, Wijers AA, Minderaa RB, Althaus M: ERP correlates of selective attention and working memory capacities in children with ADHD and/or PDD-NOS. Clin Neurophysiol; 2009 Jan;120(1):60-72
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  • [Title] ERP correlates of selective attention and working memory capacities in children with ADHD and/or PDD-NOS.
  • OBJECTIVE: We examined whether children (8-11 years) diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) showing primarily hyperactive behavior, differed in selective attention and working memory (WM) abilities.
  • METHODS: Healthy controls and children with ADHD, PDD-NOS or symptoms of both disorders (PDD/HD) (n=15 in each group) carried out a visual selective memory search task while their EEG was recorded from which event-related potentials were derived.
  • RESULTS: Compared to the control group, all patient groups made more omissions while hyperactive children also exhibited more false alarms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results point to less efficient WM-functioning in all patient groups.
  • Whereas the clinical groups differed from each other at the behavioral level as measured by questionnaires, no distinction between the clinical groups could be made with respect to performance or ERP measures of WM capacity and selective attention.
  • SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that a possible differentiation in selectivity and working memory capacities between PDD-NOS and ADHD is hard to find.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Child. Electroencephalography / methods. Humans. Photic Stimulation. Reaction Time / physiology. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19056313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8952
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurophysiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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35. Loe IM, Feldman HM, Yasui E, Luna B: Oculomotor performance identifies underlying cognitive deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry; 2009 Apr;48(4):431-40
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using oculomotor tests of executive function.
  • METHOD: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8 to 13 years with ADHD (n = 26) and controls (n = 33) used oculomotor tasks to assess sensorimotor function (visually guided saccades), resistance to peripheral distractors (fixation), response inhibition (antisaccades), and spatial working memory (memory-guided saccades).
  • RESULTS: All children had intact sensorimotor function and working memory.
  • Increased interstimulus (IS) fixation periods on the antisaccade task were associated with improved performance and decreased reaction times on correct trials for controls but not for children with ADHD.
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined and inattentive subtypes showed different patterns of reaction time as a function of IS periods.
  • The failure of children with ADHD to use IS time to decrease response inhibition errors and reaction time suggests that IS time is not used to prepare a response.
  • These findings highlight the importance of considering cognitive processing components affected by ADHD in addition to core behavioral symptoms, particularly in designing new treatment strategies.

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  • (PMID = 19238098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-5418
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / T73 MC00036; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY016947-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007495; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD046500; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS07495-5; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD46500; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH067924-03; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH067924; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / L40 EY016947; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / 5 R01 MH067924; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH067924-03; United States / PHS HHS / / T77 MC00031; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / L40 EY016947-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS160677; NLM/ PMC3045710
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36. Karenberg A, Förstl H: Dementia in the Greco-Roman world. J Neurol Sci; 2006 May 15;244(1-2):5-9
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  • Several classical sources--some of them medical--offer intriguing descriptions of many cognitive and behavioral symptoms in dementia, which are currently used for diagnostic purposes.
  • Only a small part of this early literature is cited in contemporary work on the origin of the dementia concept, which can be clearly traced back to the Age of Enlightenment and whose earlier history still needs to be elucidated.

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  • (PMID = 16442123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the neurological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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37. Burke JR, Morgenlander JC: Managing common behavioral problems in dementia. How to improve quality of life for patients and families. Postgrad Med; 1999 Oct 15;106(5):131-4, 139-40
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  • [Title] Managing common behavioral problems in dementia. How to improve quality of life for patients and families.
  • Dementia is the most common reason for nursing home placement, and related behavioral symptoms are the primary factors precipitating the decision.
  • Working with families to institute effective management strategies may help delay institutionalization.

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  • (PMID = 10560472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-5481
  • [Journal-full-title] Postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Psychotropic Drugs
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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38. Rhodes SM, Riby DM, Matthews K, Coghill DR: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Williams syndrome: shared behavioral and neuropsychological profiles. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol; 2011 Jan;33(1):147-56
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  • [Title] Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Williams syndrome: shared behavioral and neuropsychological profiles.
  • We compared verbally matched attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Williams syndrome (WS), and typically developing individuals (N = 19 each group) on behavioral symptoms (Conners ADHD rating scale) and neuropsychological functioning.
  • Children with WS scored within the abnormal range and did not differ in severity from ADHD children on the Conners Oppositionality, Cognitive Problems/Inattention, Hyperactivity, and ADHD Index subscales.
  • The WS and ADHD groups also showed similar patterns of neuropsychological functioning, particularly in working memory (WM) strategy use and delayed short-term memory (STM).
  • The findings may have clinical implications for the management of individuals with WS, highlighting the potential significance of behavioral, educational, and pharmacological strategies and treatments known to be useful in the treatment of children with ADHD for individuals with WS.
  • [MeSH-major] Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / complications. Behavioral Symptoms / etiology. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Neuropsychological Tests. Williams Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Analysis of Variance. Child. Executive Function / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Surveys and Questionnaires. Verbal Behavior / physiology. Young Adult


39. Rousseau C, Benoit M, Gauthier MF, Lacroix L, Alain N, Rojas MV, Moran A, Bourassa D: Classroom drama therapy program for immigrant and refugee adolescents: a pilot study. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry; 2007 Jul;12(3):451-65
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  • This evaluative study assesses the effects of a school drama therapy program for immigrant and refugee adolescents designed to prevent emotional and behavioral problems and to enhance school performance.
  • The self-report and teacher's forms of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess emotional and behavioral symptoms.
  • At the end of the program, although there were no reported improvement in self-esteem or emotional and behavioral symptoms, the adolescents in the experimental group reported lower mean levels of impairment by symptoms than those in the control group, when baseline data were controlled for.
  • This drama therapy program appears to be a promising way of working preventively and in a nonstigmatizing manner with adolescents who have been exposed to diverse forms of adversity, among which are war and violence.

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  • (PMID = 17953131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-1045
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical child psychology and psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Widenhorn-Müller K, Schwanda S, Scholz E, Spitzer M, Bode H: Effect of supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on behavior and cognition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized placebo-controlled intervention trial. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids; 2014 Jul-Aug;91(1-2):49-60
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  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affects behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairments in children 6-12 years of age diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Further outcome variables were working memory, speed of information processing and various measures of attention.
  • RESULTS: Supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid mix increased EPA and DHA concentrations in erythrocyte membranes and improved working memory function, but had no effect on other cognitive measures and parent- and teacher-rated behavior in the study population.
  • Improved working memory correlated significantly with increased EPA, DHA and decreased AA (arachidonic acid).

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 24958525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2823
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 25167-62-8 / Docosahexaenoic Acids; 27YG812J1I / Arachidonic Acid; AAN7QOV9EA / Eicosapentaenoic Acid
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) / Behavior / Children / Intervention / Polyunsaturated fatty acids/erythrocyte membrane composition / Working memory
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41. Whitehouse PJ: Alzheimer's disease: past, present, and future. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci; 1999;249 Suppl 3:43-5
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  • As we look to a world where more individuals will suffer from dementia, it is important to reflect on our past accomplishments as we work to create a better future.
  • Attempts to develop better medications for Alzheimer's disease focus on symptomatic treatments for both cognitive and behavioral symptoms.
  • In the past, almost hundred years since the pioneering work in Emil Kraepelin's laboratory that we are celebrating in this series of papers, we have come far but we have further to go.

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  • (PMID = 10654099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-1334
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholinergic Agonists
  • [Number-of-references] 111
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42. Matsuura N, Ishitobi M, Arai S, Kawamura K, Asano M, Inohara K, Fujioka T, Narimoto T, Wada Y, Hiratani M, Kosaka H: Effects of methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a near-infrared spectroscopy study with CANTAB®. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health; 2014;8(1):273
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  • BACKGROUND: A wide range of evidence supports the methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning and improvements in behavioral symptoms in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Although working memory (WM) has been hypothesized to be impaired in patients with ADHD, no pharmacological studies have examined visuospatial WM (VSWM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
  • RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the scores for both spatial working memory (SWM) and score of spatial span (SSP) tasks between the MPH-off and MPH-on conditions.
  • Although the MPH-induced change on behavior may or may not be obvious, NIRS measurements might be useful for assessing the psychological effects of MPH even when performance changes were not observed in the cognitive tasks.

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  • (PMID = 25606052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-2000
  • [Journal-full-title] Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4298959
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) / Cambridge automated neuropsychological testing battery (CANTAB®) / Executive function (EF) / Methylphenidate (MPH) / Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) / Visuospatial working memory (VSWM)
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43. Terry AV Jr, Buccafusco JJ, Herman EJ, Callahan PM, Beck WD, Warner S, Vandenhuerk L, Bouchard K, Schwarz GM, Gao J, Chapman JM: The prototypical ranitidine analog JWS-USC-75-IX improves information processing and cognitive function in animal models. J Pharmacol Exp Ther; 2011 Mar;336(3):751-66
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  • [Title] The prototypical ranitidine analog JWS-USC-75-IX improves information processing and cognitive function in animal models.
  • This study was designed to evaluate further a prototypical ranitidine analog, JWS-USC-75-IX, [(3-[[[2-[[(5-dimethylaminomethyl)-2-furanyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]amino]-4-nitropyridazine, JWS], for neuropharmacologic properties that would theoretically be useful for treating cognitive and noncognitive behavioral symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders.
  • JWS was previously found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, serve as a potent ligand at muscarinic M₂ acetylcholine receptors, and elicit positive effects on spatial learning, passive avoidance, and working memory in rodents.
  • JWS was subsequently evaluated orally across additional behavioral assays in rodents (dose range, 0.03-10.0 mg/kg) as well as nonhuman primates (dose range, 0.05-2.0 mg/kg).
  • JWS also attenuated scopolamine and (-)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801)-related impairments in a spontaneous novel object recognition task and a five-choice serial reaction time task, respectively.
  • Thus, JWS (potentially via effects at several drug targets) improves information processing, attention, and memory in animal models and could potentially treat the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of some neuropsychiatric illnesses.

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  • (PMID = 21106907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0103
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R21 AG032140
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 884KT10YB7 / Ranitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3061527
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44. Papp P, Imber-Black E: Family themes: transmission and transformation. Fam Process; 1996 Mar;35(1):5-20
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  • In this method, behavioral symptoms are framed as a current manifestation of an overarching theme.
  • This orientation enables family and therapist to de-pathologize symptoms and work collaboratively toward change.

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  • (PMID = 8964285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-7370
  • [Journal-full-title] Family process
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fam Process
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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45. Peters RK, Benson H, Porter D: Daily relaxation response breaks in a working population: I. Effects on self-reported measures of health, performance, and well-being. Am J Public Health; 1977 Oct;67(10):946-53
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  • [Title] Daily relaxation response breaks in a working population: I. Effects on self-reported measures of health, performance, and well-being.
  • Differences between the mean changes in Groups A vs C reached statistical significance (p < 0.05) on four of the five indices: Symptoms, Illness Days, Performance, and Sociability-Satisfaction.
  • Improvements on the Happiness-Unhappiness Index were not significantly different among the three groups.
  • Somatic symptoms and performance responded with less practice of the relaxation response than did behavioral symptoms and measures of well-being. (Am. J.

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  • (PMID = 333957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-0036
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1653745
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46. Kolanowski A, Buettner L, Moeller J: Treatment fidelity plan for an activity intervention designed for persons with dementia. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen; 2006 Oct-Nov;21(5):326-32
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  • The trial tests the efficacy of activities for responding to the behavioral symptoms of dementia.
  • The authors report treatment fidelity strategies to allow comparison of their intervention with that of other studies, to improve effect size in similar studies, and to facilitate replication and translation of this work into clinical practice.

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  • (PMID = 17062551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-3175
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINR NIH HHS / NR / R01 NR008910-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Morley JE: Testosterone and behavior. Clin Geriatr Med; 2003 Aug;19(3):605-16
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  • A number of authors have tried to describe a set of behavioral symptoms associated with the andropause.
  • In older men testosterone enhances spatial memory and possibly verbal and working memory.
  • Table 2 summarizes the putative behavioral effects of testosterone.
  • [Table: see text] There is a clear need for better designed large-scale behavioral studies to determine the effects of testosterone in older men and women.

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  • (PMID = 14567011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0749-0690
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in geriatric medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Geriatr. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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48. Eells TD, Showalter CR: Work-related stress in American trial judges. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law; 1994;22(1):71-83
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  • [Title] Work-related stress in American trial judges.
  • This study examines work-related stress among American trial judges using a relational model of stress, which emphasizes an individual's appraisals in a person-situation relationship.
  • A representative sample of 88 judges completed three questionnaires addressing type and magnitude of specific work-related stressors, psychological stress symptoms, and psychosocial moderators of stress.
  • The most stressful aspects of work relate to poorly prepared or disrespectful counsel, exercising judicial management and discretion, and highly emotional cases under public scrutiny.
  • Correlational analyses show that stress is associated with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms, including a possible adverse impact on decision-making capacity.
  • [MeSH-major] Jurisprudence. Occupational Diseases / etiology. Stress, Psychological / etiology. Work / psychology

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  • (PMID = 8193391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-634X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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49. Rodrigues DH, Vilela Mde C, Lacerda-Queiroz N, Miranda AS, Sousa LF, Reis HJ, Teixeira AL: Behavioral investigation of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2011 Dec;69(6):938-42
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  • [Title] Behavioral investigation of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
  • Besides physical impairment, behavioral symptoms are also common in patients with multiple sclerosis.
  • In this work, we aimed to study behavioral parameters in animals with EAE using the MOG(35-55) model in C57BL/6 mice.
  • Therefore, we conclude that behavioral changes in animals with EAE induced with MOG(35-55) are probably subtle or absent.

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  • (PMID = 22297884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4227
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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50. Brown CJ: Self-renewal in nursing leadership: the lived experience of caring for self. J Holist Nurs; 2009 Jun;27(2):75-84
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  • Nurse leaders are often vulnerable to stress as experienced in the workenvironment, including long hours, patient overloads, and challenging work settings.
  • If ignored, these stressors may lead to physical, emotional and behavioral symptoms with possible resulting medical errors, absenteeism, health challenges, and job burnout.
  • Individual taped interviews were conducted with the participants in a private room in their work setting, a 185-bed community hospital.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the reflections of the nursing leaders, recommendations include implementing creative, holistic methods to encourage self-renewal in the work environment.

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  • (PMID = 19182266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0898-0101
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of holistic nursing : official journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Holist Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / 5 T32 AT000052
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Linssen AM, Vuurman EF, Sambeth A, Riedel WJ: Methylphenidate produces selective enhancement of declarative memory consolidation in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl); 2012 Jun;221(4):611-9
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  • Besides reducing behavioral symptoms, it improves their cognitive function.
  • OBJECTIVE: In the current study, the possible enhancing effects of three doses of methylphenidate on declarative and working memory, attention, response inhibition and planning were investigated in healthy volunteers.
  • Cognitive performance testing included a word learning test as a measure of declarative memory, a spatial working memory test, a set-shifting test, a stop signal test and a computerized version of the Tower of London planning test.
  • Methylphenidate also improved set shifting and stopped signal task performance but did not affect spatial working memory or planning.

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  • (PMID = 22169884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2072
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; 0 / Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; 207ZZ9QZ49 / Methylphenidate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3360847
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52. Doyle AE, Ferreira MA, Sklar PB, Lasky-Su J, Petty C, Fusillo SJ, Seidman LJ, Willcutt EG, Smoller JW, Purcell S, Biederman J, Faraone SV: Multivariate genomewide linkage scan of neurocognitive traits and ADHD symptoms: suggestive linkage to 3q13. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet; 2008 Dec 5;147B(8):1399-411
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  • [Title] Multivariate genomewide linkage scan of neurocognitive traits and ADHD symptoms: suggestive linkage to 3q13.
  • The current article examined whether the inclusion of neurocognitive measures in a genomewide linkage analysis of ADHD could aid in identifying QTL linked to the behavioral symptoms of the condition.
  • ADHD symptoms were assessed with the K-SADS-E.
  • The neurocognitive battery included Wechsler Intelligence Scales subtests, the Stroop, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, a working memory CPT, the CVLT and WRAT-III subscales.
  • After correction for multiple trait testing, a region on chromosome 3q13 showed suggestive linkage to all neurocognitive traits examined and inattention symptoms of ADHD.
  • Our primary findings raise the possibility that one or more genes on 3q13 influence neurocognitive functions and behavioral symptoms of inattention.

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  • (PMID = 18973233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-485X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01HD37694; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R21MH080730; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD037694; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R21 MH080730; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R21 MH080730-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS76298; NLM/ PMC4002289
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53. Rinsky JR, Hinshaw SP: Linkages between childhood executive functioning and adolescent social functioning and psychopathology in girls with ADHD. Child Neuropsychol; 2011;17(4):368-90
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  • We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early/midadolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing and internalizing symptomatology.
  • Predictors were well-established measures of planning, response inhibition, and working memory, along with a control measure of fine motor control.
  • We conclude that childhood interventions should target EF impairments in addition to behavioral symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 21390921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-4136
  • [Journal-full-title] Child neuropsychology : a journal on normal and abnormal development in childhood and adolescence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Child Neuropsychol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH045064-17; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH045064; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH045064-17; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH45064
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS272832; NLM/ PMC3120930
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54. Greenberg BD, Askland KD, Carpenter LL: The evolution of deep brain stimulation for neuropsychiatric disorders. Front Biosci; 2008;13:4638-48
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  • Thus, therapeutic effectiveness can be enhanced and stimulation-related side effects minimized during long-term patient management.
  • Thus far, work in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the first psychiatric condition studied using modern DBS devices, has shown consistently positive results across multiple small-scale studies.
  • Work in treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) also suggests therapeutic potential in preliminary studies, generating cautious optimism for this indication.
  • Further development of DBS for these and other illnesses with primarily behavioral symptoms will require thoughtful collaboration among multiple disciplines.


55. Zou LB, Yamada K, Nabeshima T: Sigma receptor ligands (+)-SKF10,047 and SA4503 improve dizocilpine-induced spatial memory deficits in rats. Eur J Pharmacol; 1998 Aug 14;355(1):1-10
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  • This study examined the effects of the sigma receptor ligands (+)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)-SKF10,047) and 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine dihydrochloride (SA4503) on dizocilpine-induced impairment of working and reference memory in a radial arm maze task in rats.
  • Dizocilpine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, significantly impaired both reference and working memory, an effect which was accompanied by ataxia and impairment of food intake.
  • SA4503 also attenuated the dizocilpine-induced working memory impairment, although (+)-SKF10,047 had no effect.
  • Neither sigma receptor ligand affected the behavioral symptoms such as ataxia and impairment of food intake induced by dizocilpine.

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  • (PMID = 9754932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2999
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Nootropic Agents; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 0 / Receptors, sigma; 0 / SA 4503; 6LR8C1B66Q / Dizocilpine Maleate; 7619-35-4 / SK&F 10047; J0ND6N0AQC / Phenazocine
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56. Bercum FM, Rodgers KM, Benison AM, Smith ZZ, Taylor J, Kornreich E, Grabenstatter HL, Dudek FE, Barth DS: Maternal Stress Combined with Terbutaline Leads to Comorbid Autistic-Like Behavior and Epilepsy in a Rat Model. J Neurosci; 2015 Dec 2;35(48):15894-902
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  • We examined the independent and combined effects of maternal stress and terbutaline (used to arrest preterm labor), autism risk factors in humans, on measures of both autistic-like behavior and epilepsy in Sprague-Dawley rats.
  • However, their combination resulted in severe behavioral symptoms, as well as spontaneous recurrent convulsive seizures in 45% and epileptiform spikes in 100%, of the rats.
  • We conclude that prenatal insults alone can cause comorbid autism and epilepsy but it requires a combination of teratogens to achieve this; testing single teratogens independently and not examining combinatorial effects may fail to reveal key risk factors in humans.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515894-09$15.00/0.
  • (PMID = 26631470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Sympathomimetics; N8ONU3L3PG / Terbutaline
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; autism / epilepsy / maternal stress / neuroinflammation / terbutaline
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57. Bark R, Dieckmann S, Bogerts B, Northoff G: Deficit in decision making in catatonic schizophrenia: an exploratory study. Psychiatry Res; 2005 Apr 15;134(2):131-41
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  • Catatonic schizophrenia can be distinguished from paranoid schizophrenia by prominent behavioral and motor anomalies.
  • As demonstrated in recent imaging studies, behavioral symptoms may be related to dysfunction in the ventral prefrontal cortex.
  • The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Object Alternation Task (OAT) served as measures of ventral prefrontal cortical function.
  • In addition, other prefrontal cortical tests such as a visual working memory task, a Go-NoGo task, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, as well as attentional tasks, were included in the test battery.
  • In conclusion, our preliminary results suggest a specific deficit in catatonic schizophrenia in those neuropsychological measures that are associated with ventral prefrontal cortical function.

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  • (PMID = 15840414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychiatry research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychiatry Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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58. Montgomery RW, Ayllon T: Eye movement desensitization across subjects: subjective and physiological measures of treatment efficacy. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry; 1994 Sep;25(3):217-30
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  • Dependent variables included self-report information (SUDs, behavioral symptoms reports) and physiological data (heart rate and systolic blood pressure).
  • This study appears to corroborate previous work employing single-case design as well as pre and postcomparisons.

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  • (PMID = 7852604.001).
  • [ISSN] 0005-7916
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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59. Winders Davis D, Burns B: Problems of self-regulation: a new way to view deficits in children born prematurely. Issues Ment Health Nurs; 2001 Apr-May;22(3):305-23
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  • Low birth rate children are at increased risk for psychiatric and behavioral symptoms especially those related to attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders.
  • The study of self-regulation (SR) of cognition and the factors that may influence the development of regulatory capacity are suggested as a way to frame future work.


60. Cunningham J, Yonkers KA, O'Brien S, Eriksson E: Update on research and treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Harv Rev Psychiatry; 2009;17(2):120-37
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  • Many women in their reproductive years experience some mood, behavioral. or physical symptoms in the week prior to menses.
  • Variability exists in the level of symptom burden in that some women experience mild symptoms, whereas a small minority experience severe and debilitating symptoms.
  • For an estimated 5%-8% of premenopausal women, work or social functioning are affected by severe premenstrual syndrome.
  • Among women who suffer from PMDD, mood and behavioral symptoms such as irritability, depressed mood, tension, and labile mood dominate.
  • Recent evidence suggests that individual sensitivity to cyclical variations in levels of gonadal hormones may predispose certain women to experience these mood, behavioral, and somatic symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 19373620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-7309
  • [Journal-full-title] Harvard review of psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harv Rev Psychiatry
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH072955-02; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH072955; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH072955-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 312
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS293835; NLM/ PMC3098121
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61. Roth ME: Advances in Alzheimer's disease. A review for the family physician. J Fam Pract; 1993 Dec;37(6):593-607
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  • Criteria for clinical diagnosis have been outlined by a work group of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association.
  • Key diagnostic tools include a complete patient history, mental status testing, and a thorough diagnostic workup to exclude the possibility of a reversible disease mimicking the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
  • Currently, management of Alzheimer's disease involves a two-pronged approach: behavioral-supportive care and pharmacologic control of disruptive behavioral symptoms.
  • In the future, drug therapy may be available to maintain memory and cognitive function.
  • The realistic goal of health care providers at the present time, however, should be symptom control rather than disease reversal.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Family Practice. Humans. Patient Care Planning

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  • [CommentIn] J Fam Pract. 1994 Mar;38(3):223 [8126398.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Fam Pract. 1994 May;38(5):537-8 [8176355.001]
  • (PMID = 8245812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-3509
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of family practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fam Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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62. Bouvrais-Veret C, Weiss S, Hanoun N, Andrieux A, Schweitzer A, Job D, Hamon M, Giros B, Martres MP: Microtubule-associated STOP protein deletion triggers restricted changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. J Neurochem; 2008 Feb;104(3):745-56
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  • Mice invalidated for the STOP gene display phenotype reminiscent of some schizophrenic-like symptoms, such as behavioral disturbances, dopamine (DA) hyper-reactivity, and possible hypoglutamatergia, partly improved by antipsychotic treatment.
  • In the present work, we examined potential alterations in some DAergic key proteins and behaviors in STOP knockout mice.
  • Whereas the densities of the DA transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter and the D(1) receptor were not modified, the densities of the D(2) and D(3) receptors were decreased in some DAergic regions in mutant versus wild-type mice.
  • The DA uptake was decreased in accumbic synaptosomes, but not significantly altered in striatal synaptosomes.

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurochem. 2012 Apr;121(1):1-3 [22145979.001]
  • (PMID = 18199119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-4159
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Mtap6 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Slc18a2 protein, mouse; 0 / Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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63. Whitehouse PJ, Kittner B, Roessner M, Rossor M, Sano M, Thal L, Winblad B: Clinical trial designs for demonstrating disease-course-altering effects in dementia. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord; 1998 Dec;12(4):281-94
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  • Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) now permit responsible discussion of therapies that may go beyond relief of cognitive and behavioral symptoms and actually slow progression of disease.
  • The mechanisms of neuronal death and the pathologic role of glia are being elucidated, and epidemiologic studies have suggested potential protective value for anti-inflammatory drugs, estrogen, and free-radical scavengers.
  • To evaluate trial designs for demonstrating such effects, the International Working Group on Harmonization of Dementia Drug Guidelines (IWG) conducted a symposium at the Sixth International Congress on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders, held July 1998 in Amsterdam.
  • The presentations at the IWG symposium covered the two basic designs currently being used in clinical trials, survival analysis and staggered-start/withdrawal, in addition to clinical data generated from the National Institute on Aging Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study vitamin E/selegiline trial in patients with AD and the phase III clinical studies of propentofylline in patients with AD and VaD.

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  • (PMID = 9876956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-0341
  • [Journal-full-title] Alzheimer disease and associated disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Congresses; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nootropic Agents
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64. Akil M, Brewer GJ: Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities in Wilson's disease. Adv Neurol; 1995;65:171-8
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  • [Title] Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities in Wilson's disease.
  • From the literature and our experience, a relatively consistent picture of psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities in Wilson's disease emerges.
  • Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities are frequent manifestations of WD.
  • As Wilson himself was the first to state in reference to "mental change," "its importance should not be underestimated." 2.
  • Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities are often the initial manifestations of WD.
  • Two thirds of our patients first presented with psychiatric symptoms and one third received psychiatric treatment before the diagnosis of WD was made.
  • In the early stages of the disease, when psychiatric and behavioral symptoms predominate, the diagnosis is often missed.
  • Until the psychiatric presentation of WD is recognized, and the disease is included in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, its diagnosis will be missed or delayed.
  • 3. The most common of the psychiatric and behavioral manifestations of WD include: personality changes such as irritability and low threshold to anger, depression sometimes leading to suicidal ideation and attempts, deteriorating academic and work performance that is present in almost all neurologically affected patients.
  • 4. Some of the psychiatric and behavioral symptoms are reversible with WD-specific therapy, whereas others are not.
  • We are impressed with the frequency with which the behavioral and "cognitive" symptoms are reversed over 1 to 2 years of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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  • (PMID = 7872138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 789U1901C5 / Copper
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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65. Guy J, Hendrich B, Holmes M, Martin JE, Bird A: A mouse Mecp2-null mutation causes neurological symptoms that mimic Rett syndrome. Nat Genet; 2001 Mar;27(3):322-6
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  • [Title] A mouse Mecp2-null mutation causes neurological symptoms that mimic Rett syndrome.
  • Previous work with Mecp2-null embryonic stem cells indicated that MeCP2 is essential for mouse embryogenesis.
  • Both Mecp2-null mice and mice in which Mecp2 was deleted in brain showed severe neurological symptoms at approximately six weeks of age.
  • 19,20) was not apparent in genetic or biochemical tests.
  • After several months, heterozygous female mice also showed behavioral symptoms.
  • The overlapping delay before symptom onset in humans and mice, despite their profoundly different rates of development, raises the possibility that stability of brain function, not brain development per se, is compromised by the absence of MeCP2.


66. Szymanski L, King BH: Summary of the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Mental Retardation and Comorbid Mental Disorders. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry; 1999 Dec;38(12):1606-10
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  • The parameters were written to aid clinicians in the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with symptoms of mental retardation (MR) and comorbid mental disorders.
  • With an approach underscored by principles of normalization and the availability of appropriate education and habilitation, persons with MR generally live, are educated, and work in the community.
  • Clinical presentations can be modified by poor language skills and by life circumstances, so a diagnosis might hinge more heavily on observable behavioral symptoms.


67. Corredor CA, Castillo CS: [Other Possible Clinical Applications of Drugs with 5HT2A effect in Liaison Psychiatry: Cases Report]. Rev Colomb Psiquiatr; 2012 Mar;41(1):217-29
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  • [Transliterated title] Otras posibles aplicaciones clínicas de fármacos con efecto 5HT2A y 3 en psiquiatría de enlace: reporte de casos.
  • INTRODUCTION: In liaison psychiatry it is possible to get an integral view of patient's treatment and needs, paying special attention to pharmacological interactions and contraindications.
  • RESULTS: We describe 3 cases of patients in which Mirtazapine and Olanzapine were necessary not only to control psychiatric symptoms (affective / behavioral symptoms and insomnia) but to act as adjuvant therapy in axis III diseases.
  • The use of any drug in psychiatry must take in to account the context of the patient, the presence of comorbidity, contraindications and pharmacological interactions so as to grant a positive outcome also promoting the multidisciplinary work between specialists.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 26573480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-7450
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista colombiana de psiquiatría
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Colomb Psiquiatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Colombia
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mirtazapina / Mirtazapine / encefalopatía / encephalopathy / hiperalgesia / hyperalgesia / olanzapina / olanzapine / tinitus / tinnitus
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68. Howson AL, Batth S, Ilivitsky V, Boisjoli A, Jaworski M, Mahoney C, Knott VJ: Clinical and attentional effects of acute nicotine treatment in Tourette's syndrome. Eur Psychiatry; 2004 Apr;19(2):102-12
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  • Evidence from pre-clinical infrahuman investigations, open-label clinical trials, and a single controlled trial found acute nicotine treatment potentiated up to 4 weeks neuroleptic-induced reductions of dyskinetic symptoms characterizing Tourette's syndrome (TS).
  • Given the attentional disturbances associated with this syndrome, and the improvements in attentional processes reported with nicotine, this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (4 h) and sustained (2 weeks) effects of a single dose of transdermal nicotine on clinical (i.e., tics), attentional (continuous performance task, event-related potential, patient and parental reports) and behavioral symptoms in 23 children and adolescents with TS receiving neuroleptic treatment.
  • In the 14 evaluable patients with complete primary efficacy data, nicotine (compared to placebo) failed to alter symptoms at 4 h but counteracted ERP-P300 signs of diminished attention seen 2 weeks following placebo treatment.
  • Secondary efficacy measures, including patient self-reports and parental ratings, found nicotine to reduce complex tics and improve behaviors related to inattention.
  • Additional work with intermittent dosing schedules is required to characterize optimal clinical and cognitive effects with nicotine treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Adolescent. Analysis of Variance. Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Double-Blind Method. Electroencephalography. Evoked Potentials / drug effects. Female. Humans. Male. Reaction Time / drug effects. Severity of Illness Index. Task Performance and Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Videotape Recording

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  • (PMID = 15132126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0924-9338
  • [Journal-full-title] European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Ganglionic Stimulants; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine
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69. Foebel AD, Liperoti R, Onder G, Finne-Soveri H, Henrard JC, Lukas A, Denkinger MD, Gambassi G, Bernabei R, SHELTER Study Investigators: Use of antipsychotic drugs among residents with dementia in European long-term care facilities: results from the SHELTER study. J Am Med Dir Assoc; 2014 Dec;15(12):911-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common reasons for use of antipsychotic drugs among older individuals with dementia.
  • These drugs are not approved for such use and both the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have issued warnings to limit such use.
  • Generalized estimation equation analysis revealed that the strongest correlate of any antipsychotic drug use was severe behavioral symptoms, which increased the likelihood by 2.84.
  • Correlates of atypical versus conventional antipsychotic drug use included psychiatric services, more than 10 medications, moderate behavioral symptoms, and female gender.
  • Future work should not only establish the appropriateness of such use through outcomes studies, but explore withdrawal strategies as well as alternative treatment modalities.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 25262195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9375
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Med Dir Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Nursing homes / antipsychotic drugs / dementia
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70. Seippel L, Bäckström T: Luteal-phase estradiol relates to symptom severity in patients with premenstrual syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 1998 Jun;83(6):1988-92
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  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by distressing somatic and behavioral symptoms that develop after ovulation, reach a maximum during the premenstrual days, and disappear within 4 days after the onset of menstruation.
  • Corpus luteum formation is necessary for the presence of symptoms, but the role of luteal hormones is unclear.
  • The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between sex hormone serum concentrations and premenstrual symptom severity in patients with PMS.
  • Mental and physical symptoms were marked on a validated visual analog scale by 30 PMS patients every evening.
  • Symptom severity was calculated as the number of negative symptoms expressed per day and as summarized scores of negative ratings.
  • The pattern of expressed symptoms and summarized scores during the menstrual cycle was similar for the 2 groups.
  • High concentration of luteal-phase estradiol and LH were related to the severity of negative premenstrual symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 9626129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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71. Tempel R: PMS in the workplace. An occupational health nurse's guide to premenstrual syndrome. AAOHN J; 2001 Feb;49(2):72-8
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  • 1. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is defined as the cyclic recurrence of physical, psychological, or behavioral symptoms that appear after ovulation and resolve with the onset of menstruation.
  • These symptoms can be severe enough to disrupt personal relationships, social activities, or job performance.
  • The best tool to diagnose PMS is a daily symptoms rating calendar.
  • To have the diagnosis of PMS, the symptoms must be severe enough to disrupt normal daily activities.
  • 3. The occupational health nurse can provide information about first line treatment modalities for PMS symptoms including dietary modifications, nutritional supplements, aerobic exercise, and stress management skills.
  • 4. More research is needed about PMS in the workplace and the effect of treatments on outcomes such as job attendance and work performance.

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  • (PMID = 11760268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-0162
  • [Journal-full-title] AAOHN journal : official journal of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AAOHN J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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72. Fremont P: [Management of patients and their families]. Encephale; 1999 Nov;25 Spec No 5:30-4; discussion 35
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  • The management of the disease shows, in fact, that management consists in long-term accompaniment of the patient, of course, but also of the family, qualified as the "natural caregiver", and that the two are indissociable.
  • The various studies on caregivers stress the importance of the psychological burden, the risk of depression and, above all, the position of behavioral symptoms in their quality of life.
  • WHO has formulated recommendations concerning caregivers, and while they are simply common sense, they deserve to be restated: carefully evaluating their capacities and work load and informing them on the disease may enable them to benefit from support and, above all, enable periods of respite to be arranged.


73. Dodel R, Belger M, Reed C, Wimo A, Jones RW, Happich M, Argimon JM, Bruno G, Vellas B, Haro JM: Determinants of societal costs in Alzheimer's disease: GERAS study baseline results. Alzheimers Dement; 2015 Aug;11(8):933-45
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  • BACKGROUND: To identify the main factors associated with societal costs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in community-dwelling patients across three European countries.
  • Assessments included patients' cognition, activities of daily living (ADLs) and behavioral symptoms, and caregiver burden.
  • Cost calculations (2010) from the societal perspective were based on patient/caregiver resource use.
  • RESULTS: Mean monthly costs per patient differed for France (€1881), Germany (€2349), and the UK (€2016), with informal care costs accounting for 50% to 61%.
  • Independent factors associated with costs across all countries were ADL total score, patient living arrangements, caregiver working status, and caregiver burden (all P < .05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Several patient and caregiver factors, including factors associated with informal care, should be included when evaluating care options for patients with AD.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 25846298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5279
  • [Journal-full-title] Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alzheimers Dement
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Observational Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Alzheimer's disease / Cost of illness / Dementia / Factors / Health care costs
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74. Ueno K, Togashi H, Yoshioka M: [Behavioral and pharmacological studies of juvenile stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi; 2003 Feb;23(1):47-55
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  • [Title] [Behavioral and pharmacological studies of juvenile stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].
  • The present study was undertaken to evaluate juvenile stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) as an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).
  • Anxiety-related behavior assessed by elevated plus-maze as an index of impulsivity, the entries into open arms and the spent time in the open arms of SHRSP were significantly higher than those of WKY.
  • Spontaneous alternation behavior requiring attention and working memory in the Y-maze was significantly impaired in male, but not female, SHRSP when compared with sex-matched WKY.
  • Hippocampal long-term potentiation formation, a cellular model of learning and memory, was not impaired in SHRSP.
  • Methylphenidate, a first choice psychostimulant for AD/HD, significantly alleviated the hyperactivity in SHRSP.
  • However, intense impulsivity of SHRSP was not improved by methylphenidate.
  • Methylphenidate alleviates the behavioral symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention.
  • Thus, juvenile male SHRSP might be a useful behavioral animal model of AD/HD, from behavioral and pharmacological perspectives.

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  • (PMID = 12690641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-2544
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon shinkei seishin yakurigaku zasshi = Japanese journal of psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; 207ZZ9QZ49 / Methylphenidate
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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75. Uchida Y, Norasakkunkit V: The NEET and Hikikomori spectrum: Assessing the risks and consequences of becoming culturally marginalized. Front Psychol; 2015;6:1117
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  • Though the behavioral symptoms of NEET and Hikikomori can be differentiated, some commonalities in psychological features can be found.
  • In this study, we developed a NEET-Hikikomori Risk Factors (NHR) scale that treats NEET/Hikikomori not as a set of distinct diagnoses, but as a spectrum of psychological tendencies associated with the risk of being marginalized in society.
  • (1) Freeter lifestyle preference, which in Japan refers to the tendency to consciously choose to not work despite job availabilities, (2) a lack of self-competence, and (3) having unclear ambitions for the future (Study 1).

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  • (PMID = 26347667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1664-1078
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in psychology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Psychol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4540084
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hikikomori / NEET / culture / marginalization / rating scales / risk factors
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76. Woods DL, Mentes JC: Spit: saliva in nursing research, uses and methodological considerations in older adults. Biol Res Nurs; 2011 Jul;13(3):320-7
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  • There are numerous advantages to using saliva as a biological fluid, particularly for nurse researchers working with vulnerable populations, such as frail older adults.
  • The authors describe their experiences with the use of saliva in research with older adults that examined (a) osmolality as an indicator of hydration status and (b) cortisol and behavioral symptoms of dementia.
  • For example, it is not enough to detect levels or rely solely on summary statistics; rather it is critical to characterize any rhythmicity inherent in the parameter of interest.
  • Not accounting for rhythmicity in the analysis and interpretation of data can limit the interpretation of associations, thus impeding advances related to the contribution that an altered rhythm may make to individual vulnerability.

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  • (PMID = 21586500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4175
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological research for nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol Res Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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77. Kourtesis I, Kasparov S, Verkade P, Teschemacher AG: Ultrastructural Correlates of Enhanced Norepinephrine and Neuropeptide Y Cotransmission in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Brain. ASN Neuro; 2015 Sep-Oct;7(5)
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  • The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) replicates many clinically relevant features of human essential hypertension and also exhibits behavioral symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and dementia.
  • Nevertheless, numerous studies including our own work have revealed striking differences in central catecholaminergic transmission in SHR such as increased vesicular catecholamine content in the ventral brainstem.
  • In locus coeruleus and rostral ventrolateral medulla, but not in nucleus tractus solitarius, of SHR, noradrenergic and adrenergic vesicles were significantly larger and showed increased NPY colocalization when compared with Wistar rats.

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  • [Copyright] © The Author(s) 2015.
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  • (PMID = 26514659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-0914
  • [Journal-full-title] ASN neuro
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ASN Neuro
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/K009192/1; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/L019396/1; United Kingdom / British Heart Foundation / / FS/09/032/27603; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MR/L020661/1
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptide Y; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4641560
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; electron microscopy / hypertension / locus coeruleus / nucleus tractus solitarius / rostral ventrolateral medulla / transmitter release
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78. Khayat S, Kheirkhah M, Behboodi Moghadam Z, Fanaei H, Kasaeian A, Javadimehr M: Effect of treatment with ginger on the severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms. ISRN Obstet Gynecol; 2014;2014:792708
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  • [Title] Effect of treatment with ginger on the severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms.
  • Although the etiology of PMS is not clear, to relieve from this syndrome different methods are recommended.
  • This study was carried out to evaluate effects of ginger on severity of symptoms of PMS.
  • This study was a clinical trial, double-blinded work, and participants were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 35) and control (n = 35) groups.
  • After identification, each participant received two ginger capsules daily from seven days before menstruation to three days after menstruation for three cycles and they recorded severity of the symptoms by daily record scale questionnaire.
  • Before intervention, there were no significant differences between the mean scores of PMS symptoms in the two groups, but after 1, 2, and 3 months of treatment, there was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001).
  • Based on the results of this study, maybe ginger is effective in the reduction of severity of mood and physical and behavioral symptoms of PMS and we suggest ginger as treatment for PMS.

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  • (PMID = 24944825.001).
  • [ISSN] 2090-4436
  • [Journal-full-title] ISRN obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ISRN Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4040198
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79. Bloom GS: Amyloid-β and tau: the trigger and bullet in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. JAMA Neurol; 2014 Apr;71(4):505-8
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  • The defining features of Alzheimer disease (AD) include conspicuous changes in both brain histology and behavior.
  • The AD brain is characterized microscopically by the combined presence of 2 classes of abnormal structures, extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, both of which comprise highly insoluble, densely packed filaments.
  • The behavioral symptoms of AD correlate with the accumulation of plaques and tangles, and they are a direct consequence of the damage and destruction of synapses that mediate memory and cognition.
  • During the past dozen years, a steadily accumulating body of evidence has indicated that soluble forms of Aβ and tau work together, independently of their accumulation into plaques and tangles, to drive healthy neurons into the diseased state and that hallmark toxic properties of Aβ require tau.
  • Therefore, Aβ is upstream of tau in AD pathogenesis and triggers the conversion of tau from a normal to a toxic state, but there is also evidence that toxic tau enhances Aβ toxicity via a feedback loop.
  • Because soluble toxic aggregates of both Aβ and tau can self-propagate and spread throughout the brain by prionlike mechanisms, successful therapeutic intervention for AD would benefit from detecting these species before plaques, tangles, and cognitive impairment become evident and from interfering with the destructive biochemical pathways that they initiate.

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  • (PMID = 24493463.001).
  • [ISSN] 2168-6157
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32GM008136
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid beta-Peptides; 0 / tau Proteins
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80. Zhang N, Zhong P, Shin SM, Metallo J, Danielson E, Olsen CM, Liu QS, Lee SH: S-SCAM, a rare copy number variation gene, induces schizophrenia-related endophenotypes in transgenic mouse model. J Neurosci; 2015 Feb 4;35(5):1892-904
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  • In addition, the mice exhibited SZ-like behavioral abnormalities, including hyperlocomotor activity, deficits in prepulse inhibition, increased anxiety, impaired social interaction, and working memory deficit.
  • Notably, the S-SCAM transgenic mice showed a unique sex difference in showing these behavioral symptoms, which is reminiscent of human conditions.
  • These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by hyperglutamatergic function associated with increased synaptic AMPA receptor levels and impaired long-term potentiation.
  • Importantly, reducing glutamate release by the group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268 ameliorated the working memory deficits in the transgenic mice, suggesting that hyperglutamatergic function underlies the cognitive functional deficits.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351892-13$15.00/0.
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  • (PMID = 25653350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA035217; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R56 MH101146
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acvrinp1 protein, mouse; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic; 0 / LY 379268; 0 / Parvalbumins; 0 / Receptors, AMPA; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; EC 2.7.4.8 / Guanylate Kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4315826
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CNV / S-SCAM/MAGI-2 / animal model / glutamatergic / schizophrenia / sexual dimorphism
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81. Li B, Zhang S, Li M, Zhang H, Hertz L, Peng L: Down-regulation of GluK2 kainate receptor expression by chronic treatment with mood-stabilizing anti-convulsants or lithium in cultured astrocytes and brain, but not in neurons. Neuropharmacology; 2009 Sep;57(4):375-85
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of GluK2 kainate receptor expression by chronic treatment with mood-stabilizing anti-convulsants or lithium in cultured astrocytes and brain, but not in neurons.
  • Kainate receptors may be of special interest because i) they have a modulatory role in synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LDP); and ii) involvement of the kainate receptor subunit GluK2 (GluR6) in behavioral symptoms thought characteristic of mania has been demonstrated in knock-out mice.
  • Glutamate receptors are expressed not only on neurons, but also on astrocytes, where they contribute to regulation of synaptic activity.
  • We have previously shown that primary cultures of mouse astrocytes respond to chronic but not acute treatment with therapeutic relevant concentrations of any of the 'classical' mood-stabilizing drugs, lithium ion (Li(+)), carbamazepine or valproate, with changes in uptake of myo-inositol, cPLA(2) expression and intracellular pH.
  • In the present work, we found i) similar gene expression of the GluK2 subunit of the kainate receptor family in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes and in brain in vivo;.
  • iii) similar down-regulation in astrocytes by oxcarbamazepine, valproic acid or Li(+), which all have mood-stabilizing effect, but not by the anti-convulsant topiramate, which has no such activity; and iv) abrogation of a normally occurring glutamate-induced ERK phosphorylation in the cultured astrocytes after chronic treatment with any of the mood-stabilizing drugs mentioned above.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LITHIUM COMPOUNDS .
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  • (PMID = 19596362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7064
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Gluk2 kainate receptor; 0 / Lithium Compounds; 0 / Psychotropic Drugs; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Kainic Acid; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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82. Sloane E, Ledeboer A, Seibert W, Coats B, van Strien M, Maier SF, Johnson KW, Chavez R, Watkins LR, Leinwand L, Milligan ED, Van Dam AM: Anti-inflammatory cytokine gene therapy decreases sensory and motor dysfunction in experimental Multiple Sclerosis: MOG-EAE behavioral and anatomical symptom treatment with cytokine gene therapy. Brain Behav Immun; 2009 Jan;23(1):92-100
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  • [Title] Anti-inflammatory cytokine gene therapy decreases sensory and motor dysfunction in experimental Multiple Sclerosis: MOG-EAE behavioral and anatomical symptom treatment with cytokine gene therapy.
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that presents clinically with a range of symptoms including motor, sensory, and cognitive dysfunction as well as demyelination and lesion formation in brain and spinal cord.
  • The current work contains the first assessment of hind paw mechanical allodynia (von Frey test) over the course of a relapsing-remitting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MOG-EAE) rat model of MS and establishes the utility of this model in examining autoimmune induced sensory dysfunction.
  • Furthermore, we tested the ability of our recently characterized anti-inflammatory IL-10 gene therapy to treat the autoimmune inflammation induced behavioral symptoms and tissue histopathological changes.

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  • (PMID = 18835435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2139
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain, behavior, and immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Behav. Immun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / K05 DA024044-01A1; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA015656; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA017670-04; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / K02 DA015642-05; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA015642; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL5510; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / K02 DA015642; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA015642-05; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R21 DA015656; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA017670-04; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / K05 DA024044; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA018156; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA017670; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA018156; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA018156-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Mog protein, rat; 0 / Myelin Proteins; 0 / Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein; 0 / Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS84603; NLM/ PMC2631931
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83. Gotts SJ, Saad ZS, Jo HJ, Wallace GL, Cox RW, Martin A: The perils of global signal regression for group comparisons: a case study of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Front Hum Neurosci; 2013;7:356
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  • We have previously argued from a theoretical basis that the standard practice of regression of the Global Signal from the fMRI time series in functional connectivity studies is ill advised, particularly when comparing groups of participants.
  • Using the prior theoretical work to formulate predictions, we show:.
  • (1) rather than simply altering the mean or range of correlation values amongst pairs of brain regions, Global Signal Regression systematically alters the rank ordering of values in addition to introducing negative values, (2) it leads to a reversal in the direction of group correlation differences relative to other preprocessing approaches, with a higher incidence of both long-range and local correlation differences that favor the Autism Spectrum Disorder group, (3) the strongest group differences under other preprocessing approaches are the ones most altered by Global Signal Regression, and (4) locations showing group differences no longer agree with those showing correlations with behavioral symptoms within the Autism Spectrum Disorder group.

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  • (PMID = 23874279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1662-5161
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in human neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Hum Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3709423
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; GCOR / artifact / functional connectivity / global correlation / resting-state fMRI / typically developing
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84. Craufurd D, Thompson JC, Snowden JS: Behavioral changes in Huntington Disease. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol; 2001 Oct-Dec;14(4):219-26
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  • [Title] Behavioral changes in Huntington Disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to gain a better understanding of behavioral abnormalities in Huntington disease (HD) and to develop a method for reliably assessing these changes.
  • BACKGROUND: Behavioral changes are a central feature of HD and often cause considerable distress and difficulty to patients and their relatives.
  • METHODS: One hundred thirty-four patients with HD were assessed using the Problem Behaviors Assessment for Huntington Disease (PBA-HD), an instrument for rating the presence, severity and frequency of behavioral abnormalities in HD.
  • RESULTS: The findings confirm that behavioral problems are common among patients with HD.
  • The most common symptoms were loss of energy and initiative, poor perseverance and quality of work, impaired judgment, poor self-care and emotional blunting.
  • Affective symptoms such as depression, anxiety and irritability occurred in around half the patients studied.
  • Psychotic symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) were rarely reported.
  • Factor analysis distinguished three clusters of behavioral symptoms, which were interpreted respectively as reflecting Apathy, Depression and Irritability.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that certain behavioral changes are fundamental to the progression of HD, whereas others have a more complex relationship to the disease process.
  • The findings have implications for the choice of behavioral measures used to evaluate efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

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  • [CommentIn] Cogn Behav Neurol. 2003 Mar;16(1):82 [14765005.001]
  • (PMID = 11725215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-878X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychiatry, neuropsychology, and behavioral neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Portugal Mda G, Marinho V, Laks J: Pharmacological treatment of frontotemporal lobar degeneration: systematic review. Rev Bras Psiquiatr; 2011 Mar;33(1):81-90
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  • OBJECTIVE: To identify the therapeutic options available for treatment of cognitive and behavioral symptoms in frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
  • All studies worked with a small sample, had short duration of treatment and used non-uniform measures in evaluating efficacy and tolerability.

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  • (PMID = 21537725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1809-452X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista brasileira de psiquiatria (São Paulo, Brazil : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Bras Psiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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86. Sands R, Studd J: Exogenous androgens in postmenopausal women. Am J Med; 1995 Jan 16;98(1A):76S-79S
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  • There is an increasing awareness that androgens are of therapeutic value in postmenopausal women.
  • Women who are androgen depleted develop physical and behavioral symptoms referred to as female androgen deficiency syndrome.
  • Testosterone seems to act synergistically with estrogen in the treatment of these symptoms.
  • The combination of estradiol and testosterone has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the skeleton, although not significantly better than estradiol therapy alone.
  • The potential metabolic complications have not been consistently demonstrated in studies to date.
  • While testosterone implants work adequately, it would be more desirable and convenient to use a testosterone patch and safer, more effective oral androgens, if these products were available.

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  • (PMID = 7825643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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87. Samuel W, Caligiuri M, Galasko D, Lacro J, Marini M, McClure FS, Warren K, Jeste DV: Better cognitive and psychopathologic response to donepezil in patients prospectively diagnosed as dementia with Lewy bodies: a preliminary study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry; 2000 Sep;15(9):794-802
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  • In several retrospective post-mortem studies, patients meeting clinical criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) who gained the greatest cognitive benefit from treatment with an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor were found to have neocortical Lewy bodies accompanying classical AD neuropathology.
  • This 'dementia with Lewy bodies' (DLB) subtype manifests both parkinsonian and psychopathologic features that set it apart from 'pure' AD (hereafter called AD).
  • In the present preliminary study, 16 dementia patients were prospectively categorized as having DLB versus AD.
  • Subjects were also categorized according to their profile on surface electromyographic (EMG) measures demonstrated in prior work to be analogues of clinically observed parkinsonian extrapyramidal signs (EPS).
  • At baseline and at 6 months, patients underwent cognitive testing with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) while caregivers assessed their psychopathologic status using the Behavioral Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) scale.
  • The tester was blinded to the AD versus DLB classification of the patients.
  • AD cases (N=12) had only a slight increase in cognitive scores, while DLB patients' (N=4) mean MMSE scores increased to a significantly greater degree.
  • For all subjects, an increase in MMSE scores across 6 months of treatment correlated with a decline in BEHAVE-AD scores.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10984725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-6230
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of geriatric psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / 1RO1 AG-14291; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / 2T32 MH19934-06; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / 5 P30 MH49671-08
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholinesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Indans; 0 / Piperidines; 8SSC91326P / donepezil
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88. Velayudhan L, Pritchard M, Powell JF, Proitsi P, Lovestone S: Smell identification function as a severity and progression marker in Alzheimer's disease. Int Psychogeriatr; 2013 Jul;25(7):1157-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Smell identification function as a severity and progression marker in Alzheimer's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction, impaired smell identification in particular, is known as a diagnostic and a marker of conversion in Alzheimer's disease (AD).
  • We aimed to evaluate the associations of olfactory identification impairments with cognition, illness severity, and progression in AD patients.
  • METHODS: Fifty-seven outpatients with late onset mild to moderate AD and 24 elderly non-demented controls (NDC) were assessed, at baseline and after three months, for Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), and Bristol Activities of Daily Living and Neuropsychiatry Inventory.
  • AD participants were classified as Rapid Cognitive Decliners (RCD) defined on a priori with a loss of ≥2 points in MMSE within the previous six months.
  • RESULTS: AD participants had lower olfactory scores than NDC.
  • Although the baseline UPSIT scores were associated with baseline MMSE scores, it did not interact significantly with change in MMSE over the follow-up period.
  • Using a median split for olfactory scores, the AD participants were classified as Rapid Olfactory Progressors (ROP) (UPSIT ≤ 15) and Slow Olfactory Progressors correlating significantly with RCD/NRCD groups.
  • The ROP group with higher olfactory impairment indicated more symptomatic illness or severity, i.e. lower cognition, higher functional dependence, and presence of behavioral symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports association of smell identification function with cognition and its utility as an adjunct clinical measure to assess severity in AD.
  • Further work, including larger longitudinal studies, is needed to explore its value in predicting AD progression.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Alzheimer's Disease.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Taste and Smell Disorders.
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  • (PMID = 23597130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-203X
  • [Journal-full-title] International psychogeriatrics / IPA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Psychogeriatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Cholinesterase Inhibitors
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89. Anderson NJ, Bonauto DK, Fan ZJ, Spector JT: Distribution of influenza-like illness (ILI) by occupation in Washington State, September 2009-August 2010. PLoS One; 2012;7(11):e48806
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Between September 2009 and August 2010, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) included questions on ILI symptoms on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).
  • ILI prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated by occupational group.
  • PRs indicated a lower prevalence of ILI in Technicians (PR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2, 0.9) and Truck Drivers (PR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.7) and higher prevalence in Janitors and Cleaners (PR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3, 4.7) and Secretaries (PR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 5.4).
  • These occupational differences may be explained, in part, by differing levels of social contact with the public or contact with contaminated surfaces at work, or by other occupational factors such as stress or access to health care resources.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Flu.
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  • (PMID = 23152808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIOSH CDC HHS / OH / 5U60 OH008487
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3495964
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